Gingivitis (gum disease) is commonly known as the inflammation of the gums; however there are two forms of gingivitis. Non-destructive gingivitis is the inflammation of the gums and is a response mechanism of the body to adhesion of bacterial biofilms or plaques to tooth surfaces. This type of gingivitis is the most common. Non-destructive gingivitis without any dental intervention from Dentistry for the Individual in Maryville, TN may lead to a severe form of gingivitis known as periodontitis.
Signs and symptoms of gingivitis are swollen gums, bright red or purple gums, gum sensitivity to physical contact such as brushing, and bleeding gums. In the severe form, gums become swollen and appear stretched over the inflamed areas of the gums. Gingivitis may also contribute to halitosis or bad breath. When the gums are swollen, the upper tissue surface of the gums becomes ulcerated and will bleed easily.
The primary cause of gingivitis is bacterial plaque which is produced from various bacteria in the mouth. Bacteria in the mouth forms plaque when their number is increased due to sufficient food supply from food debris or inadequate oral hygiene such as insufficient brushing and flossing. The plaque accumulates in the small gaps of the teeth. Such spaces are hard to reach especially during brushing. As plaque continues to accumulate, they may reach the gingival grooves of the teeth, and finally the gingival trap, which is the last defense against plaques.
When plaques accumulate in the gingival trap, they may produce various toxins and chemicals such as lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, lipoteichoic acid which promotes inflammatory response in the gums, and varieties of enzymes and toxin. These bacteria by-products and secretions promote inflammatory response in the gums and the gums tend to enlarge and become loose, allowing more plaque to accumulate.
If left unchecked, gingivitis may progress to periodontitis. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease around the surrounding area of the tooth. Periodontitis involves the loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth over time. It may progress to loosening of the tooth due to the loss of alveolar bone, and may result to its final stage in which the tooth becomes loose enough and fall off. Due to the nature of the disease, the immune system of the body becomes very sensitive and is linked to various diseases in the body such as increased risk to stroke, increased risk to heart attack, impaired blood glucose and diabetes mellitus.
If your gums are swollen and tender, make an appointment with Dentistry for the Individual in Maryville, TN immediately.